Buprenorphine

Buprenorphine is a medication used to treat opioid addiction prescribed by physicians. Buprenorphine abuse has been on the rise throughout the country as it is being sold on the streets due to the demand for the drug based on it’s ability to combat opioid withdrawal. Some people use it as a temporary fix until they can purchase their drug of choice. It creates a euphoria high for many people, especially new users, and for those who are taking it instead of heroin, it is a cost effective option. But even more important to note is that buprenorphine does not require a high dosage to feel the effects. People taking it to kick heroin may be taking 8 mg., recreational users may only take 2 mg and feel high.

Cocaine

A white crystalline alkaloid extracted from coca leaves. Cocaine is widely used as an illicit drug for its euphoric and stimulating effects. Cocaine (C17H21NO4) is a powerfully addictive, stimulant drug. On the street it is usually sold as a fine, white powder substance. The powdered salt form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected. Freebase, or crack is cocaine hydrochloride that is processed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda solution) and heated to remove the hydrochloride salt component. This ‘freebase’ form of cocaine is not water-soluble; it comes in a rock crystal that can be heated and its vapors smoked. Crack may be processed with a high percentage of impurities. The term “crack” refers to the crackling sound heard when it is heated prior to smoking. Cocaine use in the U.S. is illegal when used as recreational drug.

Fentanyl

Prince died from an overdose of fentanyl, an opioid sometimes called a narcotic. Fentanyl is used as part of anesthesia to help prevent pain after surgery or other medical procedure. Fentanyl has become one of the most dangerous drugs currently being used illicitly. 50 to 100 times more potent than morphine and 30 to 50 times more potent than heroin. Fentanyl is potentially lethal, even at very low levels. Standard opioid instant drug tests on the market do not identify this synthetic opiate. As a result, Premier Biotech developed a specific assay to test specifically for fentanyl based on reported serious growing abuse.

K2 (SPICE)

K2 or “Spice” is a mixture of herbs and spices that is typically sprayed with a synthetic compound chemically similar to THC, the psychoactive ingredients in marijuana. K2 is commonly purchased in head shops, tobacco shops, various retail outlets, and over the Internet. It is often marketed as incense or “fake weed.” Purchasing over the Internet can be dangerous because it is not usually known where the products come from or what amount of chemical is on the organic material. Street names K2 is going by are; Bilss, Black Mamba, Bombay Blue, Fake Weed, Genie, Spice.

Tramadol

Tramadol was developed with the intention of providing a less addictive alternative to the standard opiates for pain relief. When abused, the drug can create a near-immediate sense of pleasure and happiness that’s often been compared to a morphine high. Tramadol related emergency room visits has greatly increased in patients over 55. Premier Biotech developed a specific assay to test specifically for Tramadol based on the growing use of the drug.

Ecstasy (MDMA)

Ecstasy (MDMA) is a schedule I synthetic, psychoactive drug possessing stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. Ecstasy possesses chemical variations of the stimulant amphetamine or methamphetamine and a hallucinogen, most often mescaline. In, pure form, it is a white crystalline powder. It is usually taken orally either in capsule form or pressed pills, although it can be snorted in the powder form, smoked or injected as well. Ecstasy (MDMA) has the potential to be psychologically addicting. Individuals who use it regularly may find they have an increased desire to continue using it. There is short period of tolerance after MDMA use. Molly, another name for ecstasy is normally a more pure form of the drug while other types of ecstasy are commonly mixed with other chemical compounds.

Marijuana (THC)

Marijuana is green or gray dried, shredded flowers and leaves of the hemp plant (cannabis sativa). Marijuana remains the most used drug in the United States outside of alcohol. There are over 200 different terms used for marijuana, following are some of the more common names: pot, herb, grass, weed, mary Jane, reefer, skunk, boom, gangster, kif, ganja, dope, etc. Marijuana is usually rolled up in rolling papers of cigar casings (called a joint or a blunt) or in a pipe or bong. Over the years, there has been many new ways the drug is abused. Like nicotine, marijuana compounds are being used in electronic smoking devices providing very high levels of THC to the person using the drug. The main active chemical in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The highest concentrations of THC are found in the leaves and flowers. When marijuana smoke is inhaled, THC rapidly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream and than carried to the brain.

Oxycodone

The United States is the biggest global consumer of oxycodone and we are in the midst of a National Opioid Epidemic. It is often abused because it produces a euphoric high, and in many cases due to the difficulty users have in sustaining their supply turn to heroin. Crushing and snorting the drug, as well as taking it with alcohol has led to a substantial increase in overdose and death. Pharmaceutical companies are now creating versions that lose their potency and/or convert to a gummy substance when crushed. With this said, abuse continues at a very high level throughout most states. A specific assay is required in a rapid test to detect oxycodone use.

PCP (Phencyclidine)

PCP is considered a hallucinogen. In its pure form, it is a white crystalline powder that readily dissolves in water.  However, most PCP on the illicit market contains a number of contaminates as a result of makeshift manufacturing, causing the color to range from tan to brown, and the consistency from powder to a gummy mass.  It is marketed in a variety of tablets, capsules, and colored powders. It is normally used in one of three ways, snorted, smoked, or eaten. Street names for PCP include; angel dust, embalming fluid, killer or super weed (when applied to marijuana), rocket fuel, super grass, ozone, peace pill, elephant tranquilizers, dust, sherm, Hog, PCE and TCP.

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